Mathematics is an important subject for students to know in order to gain places in further academic study and high-prestige, well-paid positions. However, mathematics and the way that it is taught is enmeshed in Western, generally middle-class values and beliefs. Many indigenous students in attempting to gain mastery of mathematics find that their own background and beliefs come in conflict with these. This paper examines perceptions of mathematics, sequences of student learning, teaching and learning mathematics and languages of instruction so that areas of conflict can be identified and resolutions suggested. Community involvement in mathematics curriculum decision-making is seen as the most appropriate way to overcome cultural conflict.