Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy study of the diffusion of iron, manganese, potassium and zinc in parboiled rice kernels

Prakash Oli, Rachelle Ward, Benu Adhikari, A. John Mawson, Raju Adhikari, Tim Wess, Laura Pallas, Kathryn Spiers, David Paterson, Peter Torley

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Parboiled rice is known to contain higher levels of nutrients than its non-parboiled counterpart. In order to study the diffusion of micronutrients into the starchy endosperm of the parboiled rice kernel, the parboiled paddy samples were prepared by combining different hydrothermal treatments (hydrated only, steamed-only, hydrated then steamed) employing two hydration temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The rice kernels were sectioned longitudinally into 90 μm thick sections after hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling. These rice kernels sections were analysed by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy (S-XFM) to determine the distribution of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn). The S-XFM results showed that the bran and germ were rich in these minerals whereas the endosperm had a low concentration. Hydrothermal treatment of kernels increased the mineral diffusion into the endosperm from the bran layer and germ. The highest diffusion of Fe, Zn and Mn was observed in the sample treated with high temperature hydration for a longer time followed by steaming. However, K did not appear to diffuse into the endosperm as much as other the minerals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-148
Number of pages11
JournalLWT - Food Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sep 2016


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