Synthesis of submicrometric chitosan particles loaded with calcium phosphate for biomedical applications

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Chitosan particles loaded with dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) is a promising strategy for combining antimicrobial and osteoconduction properties in regenerative medicine. However, mostly micrometer-sized particles have been reported in the literature, limiting their use and reducing their effect in the biomedical field. We have recently overcome this limitation by developing submicrometer-sized particles with electrospray technique. The objective of this study was to understand how the process parameters control the size and properties of submicrometer chitosan particles loaded with DCPA. Solutions of 10 mg/mL chitosan and 2.5 mg/mL DCPA in a 90% acetic acid were electrosprayed under three distinct flow rate conditions: 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/h. The particles were crosslinked in a glutaraldehyde atmosphere and characterized in terms of their morphology, inorganic content, zeta potential, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. mutans. All conditions showed particles with two similar morphologies: one small-sized with a spherical shape and another larger-sized with a bi-concave shape. All generated a broad particle size distribution, with a similar mean size of ~ 235 nm. The addition of DCPA decreased the zeta potential for all the samples, but it was above 30 mV, indicating a low aggregation potential. The lower flow rate showed the worst efficacy for DCPA incorporation. Antimicrobial activity was greater in chitosan/DCPA particles with flow rate of 0.5 mL/h. It can be concluded that the flow rate of 0.5 mL/h presents the best compromise solution in terms of morphology, zeta potential, MIC, and inorganic content.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
Pages (from-to)56
JournalAAPS PharmSciTech
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 09 Feb 2023


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