Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in areas in and around Sri Lanka’s North Central Province has been identified as a major non-communicable disease due to its high prevalence and the burden on the public health system. Controversial evidence relating to the etiology and risk factors of CKDu has been reported. The most debated is the role of trace elements such as Cd and As in the pathogenesis of CKDu.
Nanayakkara, S., Senevirathna, L., Harada, K. H., Chandrajith, R., Hitomi, T., Abeysekera, T., Muso, E., Watanabe, T., & Koizumi, A. (2019). Systematic evaluation of exposure to trace elements and minerals in patients with chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 54, 206-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.04.019