The microbial communities that inhabit the intestinal tract play an important role in modulating health and productivity. Environmental stressors can impact microbial communities, which can significantly influence host physiology. Cattle are subjected to several environmental stressors when placed on feedlots, such as transportation stress, exposure to feedlot environments and change in diet and management. Exposure to these stressors could influence host gut microbiota, which in turn, could potentially influence host health and performance. The aim of the current study was to characterise the temporal changes that occur in intestinal microbiota as a consequence of feedlot placement by profiling 16s rRNA sequences in rectal faecal samples. When faecal microbiome profiles were compared in terms of relative abundances and alpha diversity metrics, the results showed significant, observable changes in profiles 2 days post-feedlot induction. Furthermore, beta-diversity analysis indicated that the phylogenetic similarity between samples significantly decreased on day 2 (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001). These trends were suggestive of a short-term reduction in microbial diversity coupled with decreased similarity between animals. These changes warrant further investigation and could provide opportunities for improved performance, health and even welfare of feedlot cattle in future.