Temporal three-dimensional spatial analysis of centre of mass during a postural balance test and effect of static tape

Herbert F. Jelinek, Helmut Ahammer, Paul Bourke, Lainey Heale, Luke Donnan

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paperpeer-review


Background: Temporal and two-dimensional measures of reach distance and joint angles, centre of pressure and centre of mass (CoM) are common features investigated in clinical and sports settings to determine postural stability or movement variability. However, postural stability or movement variability are complex, nonlinear, multidimensional patterns requiring a 3D model of movement variability. The current study therefore applied a three-dimensional representation of changes in CoM whilst undertaking a balance test.
Methods: The box-counting fractal analysis method was applied in 3-dimensions to the x,y,z data obtained during a Y-Balance Test (YBT) and the three-dimensional fractal dimension (3DFd) of CoM dispersion. Twenty participants were recruited to undertake the YBT, which required participants to stand on their dominant leg and maximally stretch the non-dominant leg in the anterior, posterolateral and posteromedial direction. CoM provides an indication of whole-body movement variability as it is based on vertical and horizontal sway. Participants were tested with and without support taping (static tape, ST) applied to the ankle, lower leg and thigh. Three-dimensional motion capture data and ground reaction forces were used to calculate CoM following kinetic and kinematic assessment of the pelvis and lower limb.
Results: Static taping significantly decreased or increased 3DFd of CoM dispersion (postural sway) compared to no taping, whilst maximum reach, a traditional two-dimensional measure, found no significant differences. Twelve participants had greater 3DFd with ST versus control (x̅±SD; 1.3±0.05 &1.26±0.06; p=0.0003) whereas eight participants had lower 3DFd (1.2±0.05 & 1.29±0.05; p=0.005).
Conclusion: Our results identify 3DFd as a robust method to investigate postural stability, which provides objective data on the complexity of CoM dispersion during the YBT and the effect of taping. The three-dimensional analysis provides a more complete indication of complexity compared to current two-dimensional movement variability measures, measures of movement variability should consider vertical changes in addition to horizontal sway. Future work will include a larger sample size and investigate factors that may have contributed to increased or decreased complexity and effect of taping.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArithmetic methods in mathematical Physics and Biology II
EditorsGrzegorz Banaszak, Piotr Krason, Jan Milewski, Przemyslaw Waliszewski
Place of PublicationWarszawa, Poland
PublisherBanach Center Publications
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9788386806508
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event2018 Arithmetic Methods in Mathematical Physics and Biology Conference - Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bedlewo, Poland
Duration: 05 Aug 201811 Aug 2018
https://ammpb2.wmi.amu.edu.pl/program (conference program)
https://ammpb2.wmi.amu.edu.pl/ (conference website)
https://ammpb2.wmi.amu.edu.pl/assets/ammpb2-abstracts-small.pdf (Conference abstracts)
https://www.impan.pl/en/publishing-house/banach-center-publications/all/124 (Online proceedings. No CSU access.)


Conference2018 Arithmetic Methods in Mathematical Physics and Biology Conference
OtherThe conference arrival day is August 5, 2018 and the departure day is August 11, 2018. The conference starts with the registration of participants on Sunday, August 5th at the registration desk. The conference ends on Saturday, August 11th. The lectures start on Monday, August 6th and end on Friday August 10th. The first conference was in 2014.
The conference aims to present recent applications of: Algebraic Number Theory, Arithmetic and Algebraic Geometry, Fractal Geometry, Nonlinear Dynamic Systems, Cellular Automata, Graph Theory and Cryptography to Mathematical Physics and Biophysics, Nonlinear Biology, and Complexity in Biology and Physics and to foster research and cooperation between scientists representing various areas of natural sciences based on the applications of both arithmetic and algebraic methods.
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