Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as near‐infrared (NIR) and mid‐infrared (mid‐IR) offer possibilities for simple, rapid and cost effective analysis in the wine and other alcoholic beverage industries. This chapter highlights recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy to analyze the composition of grapes, juices, wines, and other alcoholic beverages. A range of challenges and requirements for sample presentation and instrument configurations for optimum performance in analyzing these highly variable and complex matrices are discussed. Applications for grapes and wines include compositional analysis (especially alcoholic content), fermentation monitoring, and authenticity and sensory profiling, some of which also have potential for nondestructive and on‐line testing, including compositional measurement of bottled product in situ. An outline of similar applications for other fermented products, such as beer and sake, is also presented.