The comparison of cultural perspectives on education between 1820s and 1930s in Turkey and Finland

Ayhan Incirci, Tuija Turunen, Merja Paksuniemi

Research output: Other contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


This paper examines the cultural perspectives of school history in Turkey and Finland. It focuses on cultural aspects influencing the development of the primary level education in these two countries under the light of various data: archival sources, writings of the time and previous studies. The results indicate that both in Turkey and Finland the school system was reformed after societal changes. In Finland, which was part of Russia till 1917 the school reform was developed after the Crimean War. Decree on primary education was put in action in Finland in 1866 and the law of compulsory education came into force in 1921. The basics of the primary school were built on the writings and suggestions of two men; Uno Cygnaeus and Johan V. Snellman (Cygneaus 1910: Snellman 1993). They formulated the educational guidelines by linking culture and education together. The other aim was to unite the Finns; in 1918 there was a civil war and school had an important role in unifying people after the national crisis.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventInternational Standing Conference for the History of Education: ISCHE 37 - Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Duration: 24 Jun 201527 Jun 2015 (Archived page)


ConferenceInternational Standing Conference for the History of Education
Abbreviated titleEducation and Culture
OtherISCHE 37 will be held in Istanbul in 2015 on the theme of ‘Culture and Education’. The purpose of this conference is to examine the relations between education and culture in the historical process. In the conference answers of following questions will be addressed: What is the relationship between culture and education? What are the roles of educational reforms and educational borrowing in the cultural changes? What are the roles of educational institutions, educators, and educational materials in culture formation and transformation? How have education and elements of culture such as language,religion, symbols, and routines influenced each other throughout history?
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