The Crime and Punishment of Somali women's extra-legal arrival in Malta

Alison Gerard, Sharon Pickering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


This article looks at Somali women's experiences of extra-legal border crossing of the European Union's southern border. Based on qualitative interviews with women who have travelled irregularly to Malta, and key state and non-government organization stakeholders, this article considers the layers of exile and vulnerability engendered by Malta's attempts to secure the EU border. The article traces the gendered and racialized processes of immobilizing irregular migrants through legal and administrative policies of mandatory detention and the Dublin II Regulation, and through social and economic policy in Malta. The article concludes that border control operating at the point of arrival both contains and punishes women, even when they are legally accepted and released, keeping women suspended in a constant 'state of arrival'.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-533
Number of pages20
JournalBritish Journal of Criminology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2012


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