Quality of life is a key indicator of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research has reported several different factor structures for the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI, Frisch, 1994). We compared the fit of existing factor models and examined the clinical utility of the QOLI’s factors in a sample of Australian adults with TBI. Archival data from 901 participants were provided by the Neurotrauma Register of Tasmania. Participants were aged 16–80 years and 63% were male. Approximately 69% had mild TBI (PTA < 24 h), approximately 24% had moderate TBI (PTA >1 day, <7 days) and 7% had severe TBI. Both cross sectional and longitudinal analyses were utilized, as participants provided data at one or more of seven time-points, up to 3 years following injury. The results showed the data best fitted a three-factor model, comprising Self-functioning and activity, Self-actualization and Family and environment factors, and a second order Overall QOL factor. Differences in the trajectory of recovery were noted between the QOLI factor scores over time and in relation to demographic and injury variables. In conclusion, the three-factor structure of the QOLI provided useful clinical information about the recovery of patients’ subjective quality of life following TBI.