Rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC) is derived from defatted rice bran hydrolyzed with Lentinus edodes mycelial enzyme. It has been marketed as a functional food and a nutraceutical with health-promoting properties. Some research has demonstrated this rice bran derivative to be a potent immunomodulator, which also possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-angiogenic properties. To date, research on RBAC has predominantly focused on its immunomodulatory action and application as a complementary therapy for cancer. Nonetheless, the clinical applications of RBAC can extend beyond cancer therapy. This article is a narrative review of the research on the potential benefits of RBAC for cancer and other health conditions based on the available literature. RBAC research has shown it to be useful as a complementary treatment for cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection. It can positively modulate serum glucose, lipid and protein metabolism in diabetic patients. Additionally, RBAC has been shown to ameliorate irritable bowel syndrome and protect against liver injury caused by hepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It can potentially ease symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome and prevent the common cold. RBAC is safe to consume and has no known side effects at the typical dosage of 2–3 g/day. Nevertheless, further research in both basic studies and human clinical trials are required to investigate the clinical applications, mechanisms, and effects of RBAC.