Swine are one of the most important agricultural species for human food production. Given the significant disease challenges confronting commercial pig farming systems, introduction of a new feed additive that can enhance animal performance by improving growth and immune status represents a major opportunity. One such candidate is sialic acid (Sia), a diverse family of nine-carbon acidic sugar, present in various organs and body fluid, as well as an essential structural and functional constituent of brain ganglioside of humans and animals. Sias are key monosaccharide and biomarker of sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS’s), sialylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in milk and all vertebrate cells. Sias accomplish many critical endogenous functions by virtue of their physiochemical properties and via recognition by intrinsic receptors. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC’s) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics that promote gut microbiota development, gut maturation, pathogen resistance, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation and neurodevelopment. However, the importance of Sia in pig health, especially in the growth, development, immunity of developing piglet and in pig production remains unknown. This review aims to critically discuss the current status of knowledge of the biology and nutritional role of Sia and Sia-GC’s on health of both female sow and newborn piglets.