This chapter addresses the implications for ageing and pastoral practice of the rapid increase in life expectancy that has occurred over the past 150 years; often referred to as ‘The Great Transition’. Following a discussion of this feature of human life the chapter briefly considers some theological dimensions of ageing and the purpose of life in older years. Consideration is given to the denial of death and the consequent loss of a sense of human mortality and our status as creatures. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the dignity of persons associated with a theological understanding of human beings as bearers of the imago Dei. The pastoral implications of this affirmation show the importance of a richer understanding of the human person that transcends the biomedical paradigm.