Toward Typhoid Fever elimination

Farhana Khanam, Allen G. Ross, Nigel A.J. McMillan, Firdausi Qadri

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
120 Downloads (Pure)


Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) causes typhoid fever and is responsible for an estimated 9 million cases and 110,000 deaths globally per annum. Typhoid fever is endemic in areas where water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) infrastructure is poor. Serious complications develop in approximately 10%-15% of patients if left untreated, and this is driven by inadequate diagnostic methods and the high burden of antibiotic-resistant strains, complicating clinical management and ultimately prognosis. Asymptomatic chronic carriers, in addition to acutely infected patients, contribute to continued transmission through the shedding of the organism in the feces. The high morbidity and mortality of typhoid fever in low- and middle-income countries reinforce the need for an integrated control approach, which may ultimately lead to elimination of the disease in the 21st century. Here we discuss the challenges faced in pursuit of typhoid fever elimination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-43
Number of pages3
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Early online date22 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


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