Background and aim: A clear understanding of theimpact sex differences play in clinical traumatic brain injury(TBI) outcome remains elusive. Animal research suggeststhat females have better functional outcomes following TBIthan males. Therefore, this paper aims to systematicallyreview all studies that have examined sex differences infunctional outcome measures following moderate to severeTBI in humans. It was predicted that women would exhibitbetter functional outcome than men.Methods: A predefined study selection criteria wasadopted to screen studies eligible for inclusion. Acomprehensive and systematic search of various databases,up to the end of April 2007, was undertaken. Twoindependent reviewers screened studies for eligibility.Selected studies were assessed for methodologicalquality.Results: 13 studies were included. Because of theheterogeneity of the functional outcome measures andlack of appropriate statistical information, a qualitativeanalysis was performed. More than half of the paperswere considered high quality. Strong evidence was foundto suggest that women do not have better functionaloutcome than men following moderate to severe TBI.Conclusion: The results of this review are contrary to thesuggestions from animal literature. Consideration offactors such as the woman patient's hormonal status atthe time of injury and other sources of heterogeneity suchas age and injury severity should be addressed in futureprospective studies.
Slewa-Younan, S., van den Berg, S., Baguley, IJ., Nott, M. T., & Cameron, I. (2008). Towards an understanding of sex differences in functional outcome following moderate to severe TBI: A systematic review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 79(11), 1197-1201. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2008.147983