Purpose The median palate has been proposed as an alternative site for implant placement supporting maxillary overdentures. The aim of our research was to compare the histologic bone microarchitecture of the median palatal and the maxillary premolar alveolar ridge in edentulous elderly human cadavers. Materials and Methods The bone quality and quantity were analyzed at two regions of analysis (ROA) in 16 maxilla of human cadavers: the median palate (ROA I) and edentulous maxillary alveolar premolar ridge (ROA II). Histomorphometry of the scanned images was performed using image analysis software (National Institutes of Health ImageJ). The bone volume/tissue volume ratio, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were evaluated for the two regions. Results The bone volume fraction of the median-palatal region (ROA I) was greater than at the respective premolar sites (ROA II) in 10 of 15 samples (66.6%), with mean values ranging from 19.3-61.3%. However, the results were not statistically significant (P =.151). Similarly, the trabecular number of ROA II showed greater values than that for ROA II (mean TbN for ROA I, 1.03 mm-1 and for ROA II, 0.96 mm-1). However, these differences were not statistically significant (P =.454). Conclusions These results have indicated that the anterior median palate is structurally similar to the corresponding maxillary premolar region in elderly edentulous persons. Therefore, it can be used as an implant site to anchor a maxillary overdenture in patients with atrophic maxillary ridges.