Re-stenosis or remodeling of coronary and peripheral arteries remains a major complication following balloon-angioplasty or stenting. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nesiritide, a recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), on vascular remodeling following balloon-induced endothelial injuries. Twenty-eight male New Zealand rabbits were divided into nesiritide-treated (0.1 mg/kg/day, sc, for 4 weeks, n = 10), saline-treated control (n = 10) and sham-operated groups (n = 8). In the nesiritide and control groups, a balloon catheter was inserted to the right iliac artery to induce injuries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The area under internal elastic membrane of the arterial wall (643.2 ± 134.1 vs 493.7 ± 139.3 'm2, p < 0.05) and the area under external elastic membrane (1495.1 ± 204.9 vs 1265.9 ± 232.6 'm2, p < 0.05) in the nesiritide group were greater than those in the control group, but were smaller than those in the sham-operated group (p < 0.05). The stenosis ratio was lower in the nesiritide group than in the control group (18.7 ± 7.7% vs 38.0 ± 8.3%, p < 0.01). Importantly, the VEGF expression rate was significantly lower in the nesiritide group than in the control group (42.2 ± 8.8% vs 56.1 ± 13.1%, p < 0.05), while there were no signs of VEGF expression in the non-injured arteries of the three groups. In conclusion, nesiritide treatment reduces the stenosis of the rabbit iliac artery following balloon-induced endothelial injuries probably by decreasing VEGF expression.