Fractal analysis has already found widespread application in the field of neuroscience and is being used in many other areas. Applications are many and include ion channel kinetics of biological membranes and classification of neurons according to their branching characteristics. In this article we review some practical methods that are now available to allow the determination of the complexity and scaling relationships of anatomical and physiological patterns. The problems of describing fractal dimensions are discussed and the concept of fractal dimensionality is introduced. Several related methodological considerations, such as preparation of the image and estimation of the fractal dimensions from the data points, as well as the advantages and problems of fractal geometric analysis, are discussed.