The prevalence of Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in Australia was estimated to be 5.2% using 2009 abattoir surveillance data from all States supplied by Animal Health Australia involving 5029 lines comprising 1 339 463 sheep. This is a decrease from the 26% estimated in a similar study in 1995. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in CLA prevalence between all states except Tasmania and Victoria (P = 0.75) with prevalences of 12.8 and 12.9%, respectively. Western Australia recorded the lowest prevalence with 1.0%. The average CLA prevalence for New South Wales was 5.3% and within three surveyed Livestock Health and Pest Authority regions (Tablelands, Central North and Central West) was 2.9, 4.9 and 4.4%, respectively. The attitude of the majority of producers surveyed in these three Livestock Health and Pest Authority areas was that CLA was of little or no significance (75%) but were aware of the need for CLA control with ~68% using 6-in-1 vaccine, though only 39.9% as recommended. It appears that the prolonged use of CLA vaccination has been successful in reducing the prevalence of CLA across Australia and particularly in New South Wales. Further improvements in communication of information on preventative management practices associated with lice control, importance of using an approved vaccination program, plus increasing producers' awareness of the importance of CLA control, are indicated.