Vitis vinifera berry metabolic composition during maturation: implications of defoliation

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Abstract

Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of véraison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25% of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control. An untargeted approach was undertaken to measure the content in primary metabolites by GC/MS. Partial and full defoliation resulted in reduced berry sugar and anthocyanin accumulation, while total berry N content was unaffected. The juice yeast assimilable N (YAN), however, increased upon partial and full defoliation. Remobilized carbohydrate reserves allowed accumulation of the major berry sugars during the absence of leaf photoassimilation. Berry anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly inhibited by defoliation, which could relate to the carbon (C) source limitation and/or increased bunch exposure. Arginine accumulation, likely resulting from reserve translocation, contributed to increased YAN upon defoliation. Furthermore, assessing the implications on various products of the shikimate pathway suggests the C flux through this pathway to be largely affected by leaf source limitation during fruit maturation. This study provides a novel investigation of impacts of leaf C and N source presence during berry maturation, on the development of key berry quality parameters as underlined by alterations in primary metabolism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-133
Number of pages14
JournalPhysiologia Plantarum
Volume164
Issue number2
Early online dateMar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

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Vitis
defoliation
Vitis vinifera
small fruits
Fruit
Anthocyanins
anthocyanins
leaves
sugars
ripening
leaf area
shikimate pathway
metabolites
yeasts
Yeasts
fruit composition
total soluble solids
arginine
juices
Arginine

Cite this

@article{b4ceebde82b4424293377070ee72b307,
title = "Vitis vinifera berry metabolic composition during maturation: implications of defoliation",
abstract = "Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of v{\'e}raison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25{\%} of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control. An untargeted approach was undertaken to measure the content in primary metabolites by GC/MS. Partial and full defoliation resulted in reduced berry sugar and anthocyanin accumulation, while total berry N content was unaffected. The juice yeast assimilable N (YAN), however, increased upon partial and full defoliation. Remobilized carbohydrate reserves allowed accumulation of the major berry sugars during the absence of leaf photoassimilation. Berry anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly inhibited by defoliation, which could relate to the carbon (C) source limitation and/or increased bunch exposure. Arginine accumulation, likely resulting from reserve translocation, contributed to increased YAN upon defoliation. Furthermore, assessing the implications on various products of the shikimate pathway suggests the C flux through this pathway to be largely affected by leaf source limitation during fruit maturation. This study provides a novel investigation of impacts of leaf C and N source presence during berry maturation, on the development of key berry quality parameters as underlined by alterations in primary metabolism.",
author = "Gerhard Rossouw and Katja Suklje and Jason Smith and Celia Barril and Alain Deloire and Bruno Holzapfel",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1111/ppl.12715",
language = "English",
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pages = "120--133",
journal = "Physiologia Plantarum",
issn = "0031-9317",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitis vinifera berry metabolic composition during maturation

T2 - implications of defoliation

AU - Rossouw, Gerhard

AU - Suklje, Katja

AU - Smith, Jason

AU - Barril, Celia

AU - Deloire, Alain

AU - Holzapfel, Bruno

PY - 2018/10

Y1 - 2018/10

N2 - Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of véraison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25% of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control. An untargeted approach was undertaken to measure the content in primary metabolites by GC/MS. Partial and full defoliation resulted in reduced berry sugar and anthocyanin accumulation, while total berry N content was unaffected. The juice yeast assimilable N (YAN), however, increased upon partial and full defoliation. Remobilized carbohydrate reserves allowed accumulation of the major berry sugars during the absence of leaf photoassimilation. Berry anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly inhibited by defoliation, which could relate to the carbon (C) source limitation and/or increased bunch exposure. Arginine accumulation, likely resulting from reserve translocation, contributed to increased YAN upon defoliation. Furthermore, assessing the implications on various products of the shikimate pathway suggests the C flux through this pathway to be largely affected by leaf source limitation during fruit maturation. This study provides a novel investigation of impacts of leaf C and N source presence during berry maturation, on the development of key berry quality parameters as underlined by alterations in primary metabolism.

AB - Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of véraison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25% of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control. An untargeted approach was undertaken to measure the content in primary metabolites by GC/MS. Partial and full defoliation resulted in reduced berry sugar and anthocyanin accumulation, while total berry N content was unaffected. The juice yeast assimilable N (YAN), however, increased upon partial and full defoliation. Remobilized carbohydrate reserves allowed accumulation of the major berry sugars during the absence of leaf photoassimilation. Berry anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly inhibited by defoliation, which could relate to the carbon (C) source limitation and/or increased bunch exposure. Arginine accumulation, likely resulting from reserve translocation, contributed to increased YAN upon defoliation. Furthermore, assessing the implications on various products of the shikimate pathway suggests the C flux through this pathway to be largely affected by leaf source limitation during fruit maturation. This study provides a novel investigation of impacts of leaf C and N source presence during berry maturation, on the development of key berry quality parameters as underlined by alterations in primary metabolism.

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29498442

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JO - Physiologia Plantarum

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SN - 0031-9317

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