Water stress affects the productivity, growth components, competitiveness and water relations of phalaris and white clover growing in a mixed pasture

L. Liu Guobin, D. R. Kemp, G. B. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of water stress during summer and recovery after rain on herbage accumulation, leaf growth components, stomatal conductance and leaf water relations of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Haifa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica cv. Australian Commercial) was studied in an established mixed pasture under dryland (dry) or irrigated (wet) conditions. Soil water deficits under dry conditions reached 150 mm and soil water potentials in the top 20 cm declined to nearly -2 MPa after 50 days of dry weather. Water stress severely restricted growth of both species but then after rain fell, white clover growth rates exceeded those of phalaris. Under irrigation, white clover produced twice the herbage mass of phalaris but under dry conditions herbage production was similar from both species. Leaf appearance rates per tiller or stolon were slightly higher for white clover than phalaris but were reduced by 20% under water stress in both species. Leaf or petiole extension rates were more sensitive to water stress than leaf appearance rates and declined by 75% in phalaris and 90% in white clover. The ratio of leaf or petiole extension rates on dry/wet treatments was similar for both species in relation to leaf relative water contents, but in relation to leaf water potentials phalaris maintained higher leaf growth rates. Phalaris maintained a higher leaf relative water content in relation to leaf water potentials than did white clover and also maintained higher leaf water potentials in relation to the soil water potential in the top 20 cm. Stomata1 conductances for both species declined by 80-90% with increasing water stress, and both species showed similar stomatal responses to bulk leaf water potentials and leaf relative water contents. It is suggested that the poorer performance of white clover under water stress may be due principally to a shallower root system than phalaris and not due to any underlying major physiological differences. The white clover cultivar used in this study came from the mediterranean region and showed some different responses to water stress than previously published evidence on white clover. This suggests genetic variation in responses to water stress may exist within white clover. To maintain white clover in a pasture under dry conditions it is suggested that grazing practices aim to retain a high proportion of growing points.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-672
Number of pages14
JournalAustralian Journal of Agricultural Research
Volume43
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1992

Fingerprint

Phalaris
Medicago
Trifolium repens
Dehydration
water stress
pastures
Water
Growth
arid lands
water
leaves
leaf water potential
Soil
Rain
soil water potential
forage
water content
Mediterranean Region
Trifolium
Phalaris aquatica

Cite this

@article{bf0b0239801342ecb9cf491bc2ff2be0,
title = "Water stress affects the productivity, growth components, competitiveness and water relations of phalaris and white clover growing in a mixed pasture",
abstract = "The effect of water stress during summer and recovery after rain on herbage accumulation, leaf growth components, stomatal conductance and leaf water relations of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Haifa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica cv. Australian Commercial) was studied in an established mixed pasture under dryland (dry) or irrigated (wet) conditions. Soil water deficits under dry conditions reached 150 mm and soil water potentials in the top 20 cm declined to nearly -2 MPa after 50 days of dry weather. Water stress severely restricted growth of both species but then after rain fell, white clover growth rates exceeded those of phalaris. Under irrigation, white clover produced twice the herbage mass of phalaris but under dry conditions herbage production was similar from both species. Leaf appearance rates per tiller or stolon were slightly higher for white clover than phalaris but were reduced by 20{\%} under water stress in both species. Leaf or petiole extension rates were more sensitive to water stress than leaf appearance rates and declined by 75{\%} in phalaris and 90{\%} in white clover. The ratio of leaf or petiole extension rates on dry/wet treatments was similar for both species in relation to leaf relative water contents, but in relation to leaf water potentials phalaris maintained higher leaf growth rates. Phalaris maintained a higher leaf relative water content in relation to leaf water potentials than did white clover and also maintained higher leaf water potentials in relation to the soil water potential in the top 20 cm. Stomata1 conductances for both species declined by 80-90{\%} with increasing water stress, and both species showed similar stomatal responses to bulk leaf water potentials and leaf relative water contents. It is suggested that the poorer performance of white clover under water stress may be due principally to a shallower root system than phalaris and not due to any underlying major physiological differences. The white clover cultivar used in this study came from the mediterranean region and showed some different responses to water stress than previously published evidence on white clover. This suggests genetic variation in responses to water stress may exist within white clover. To maintain white clover in a pasture under dry conditions it is suggested that grazing practices aim to retain a high proportion of growing points.",
keywords = "Leaf appearance, Leaf growth, Phalaris, Water stress, White clover",
author = "{Liu Guobin}, L. and Kemp, {D. R.} and Liu, {G. B.}",
year = "1992",
doi = "10.1071/AR9920659",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "659--672",
journal = "Crop and Pasture Science",
issn = "0004-9409",
publisher = "CSIRO Publishing",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Water stress affects the productivity, growth components, competitiveness and water relations of phalaris and white clover growing in a mixed pasture

AU - Liu Guobin, L.

AU - Kemp, D. R.

AU - Liu, G. B.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - The effect of water stress during summer and recovery after rain on herbage accumulation, leaf growth components, stomatal conductance and leaf water relations of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Haifa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica cv. Australian Commercial) was studied in an established mixed pasture under dryland (dry) or irrigated (wet) conditions. Soil water deficits under dry conditions reached 150 mm and soil water potentials in the top 20 cm declined to nearly -2 MPa after 50 days of dry weather. Water stress severely restricted growth of both species but then after rain fell, white clover growth rates exceeded those of phalaris. Under irrigation, white clover produced twice the herbage mass of phalaris but under dry conditions herbage production was similar from both species. Leaf appearance rates per tiller or stolon were slightly higher for white clover than phalaris but were reduced by 20% under water stress in both species. Leaf or petiole extension rates were more sensitive to water stress than leaf appearance rates and declined by 75% in phalaris and 90% in white clover. The ratio of leaf or petiole extension rates on dry/wet treatments was similar for both species in relation to leaf relative water contents, but in relation to leaf water potentials phalaris maintained higher leaf growth rates. Phalaris maintained a higher leaf relative water content in relation to leaf water potentials than did white clover and also maintained higher leaf water potentials in relation to the soil water potential in the top 20 cm. Stomata1 conductances for both species declined by 80-90% with increasing water stress, and both species showed similar stomatal responses to bulk leaf water potentials and leaf relative water contents. It is suggested that the poorer performance of white clover under water stress may be due principally to a shallower root system than phalaris and not due to any underlying major physiological differences. The white clover cultivar used in this study came from the mediterranean region and showed some different responses to water stress than previously published evidence on white clover. This suggests genetic variation in responses to water stress may exist within white clover. To maintain white clover in a pasture under dry conditions it is suggested that grazing practices aim to retain a high proportion of growing points.

AB - The effect of water stress during summer and recovery after rain on herbage accumulation, leaf growth components, stomatal conductance and leaf water relations of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Haifa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica cv. Australian Commercial) was studied in an established mixed pasture under dryland (dry) or irrigated (wet) conditions. Soil water deficits under dry conditions reached 150 mm and soil water potentials in the top 20 cm declined to nearly -2 MPa after 50 days of dry weather. Water stress severely restricted growth of both species but then after rain fell, white clover growth rates exceeded those of phalaris. Under irrigation, white clover produced twice the herbage mass of phalaris but under dry conditions herbage production was similar from both species. Leaf appearance rates per tiller or stolon were slightly higher for white clover than phalaris but were reduced by 20% under water stress in both species. Leaf or petiole extension rates were more sensitive to water stress than leaf appearance rates and declined by 75% in phalaris and 90% in white clover. The ratio of leaf or petiole extension rates on dry/wet treatments was similar for both species in relation to leaf relative water contents, but in relation to leaf water potentials phalaris maintained higher leaf growth rates. Phalaris maintained a higher leaf relative water content in relation to leaf water potentials than did white clover and also maintained higher leaf water potentials in relation to the soil water potential in the top 20 cm. Stomata1 conductances for both species declined by 80-90% with increasing water stress, and both species showed similar stomatal responses to bulk leaf water potentials and leaf relative water contents. It is suggested that the poorer performance of white clover under water stress may be due principally to a shallower root system than phalaris and not due to any underlying major physiological differences. The white clover cultivar used in this study came from the mediterranean region and showed some different responses to water stress than previously published evidence on white clover. This suggests genetic variation in responses to water stress may exist within white clover. To maintain white clover in a pasture under dry conditions it is suggested that grazing practices aim to retain a high proportion of growing points.

KW - Leaf appearance

KW - Leaf growth

KW - Phalaris

KW - Water stress

KW - White clover

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84970581604&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84970581604&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1071/AR9920659

DO - 10.1071/AR9920659

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84970581604

VL - 43

SP - 659

EP - 672

JO - Crop and Pasture Science

JF - Crop and Pasture Science

SN - 0004-9409

IS - 3

ER -