As images are commonly transmitted or stored in compressed form such as JPEG, to extend the applicability of our previous work1, a new scheme for embedding watermark in compressed domain without resorting to cryptography is proposed. In this work, a target image is first DCT transformed and quantised. Then, all the coefficients are implicitly watermarked in order to minimize the risk of being attacked on the unwatermarked coefficients. The watermarking is done through registering/blending the zero-valued coefficients with a binary sequence to create the watermark and involving the unembedded coefficients during the process of embedding the selected coefficients. The second-order neighbors and the block itself are considered in the process of the watermark embedding in order to thwart different attacks such as cover-up, vector quantisation, and transplantation. The experiments demonstrate the capability of the proposed scheme in thwarting local tampering, geometric transformation such as cropping, and common signal operations such as lowpass filtering.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 2003|