This study was designed to test the extent to which women who self-objectify also objectify other women. One hundred thirty-two university students and their friends (64 women and 68 men) completed three questionnaires: (1) Noll and Fredrickson's (1998) Self-Objectification Questionnaire, (2) a modified version of that questionnaire that measured individuals' objectification of others, and (3) Slade, Dewey, Newton, and Brodie's (1990) Body Cathexis scale. Women were more likely than men to self-objectify. Self-objectification was negatively related to body satisfaction for women but not for men. Both women and men objectified women more than they objectified men, although women's objectification of other women was not significantly different than their objectification of men. Men objectified women more than women did, and women objectified men more than men did. Women were more likely to objectify other women than to objectify themselves. Higher self-objectification among both women and men was related to increased objectification of other women and men, but the relationships were stronger for women. Results indicate that women also objectify women, although not to the degree exhibited by men.
Strelan, P., & Hargreaves, D. (2005). Women who objectify other women: The vicious circle of objectification? Sex Roles: a journal of research, 52(9-10), 707-712. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3737-3